CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE

INTRODUCTION OF DRUGS AND CHEMOTHERAPY

  • Drugs: Drugs are low molecular mass chemical which interact with macromolecule targets and produce a biological response.
  • Medicines: – Medicines are chemicals that are useful in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases.
  • Therapeutic effect: – Desirable and beneficial effect of drugs like treatment of symptoms and cure of diseases on a living body is known as therapeutic effect.
  • Chemotherapy: The use of chemicals to destroy infectious micro-organisms without causing any injury to the host is called chemotherapy.

 

TYPES OF DRUGS: –

1. Antacids:-

  • Chemical substances which neutralize excess acid in gastric juice and give relief from acid indigestion, acidity, heart burns and gastric ulcers.

           EXAMPLES:-

chemistry in everyday life

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Sodium bicarbonate or Sodium hydrogen carbonate or baking soda (NaHCO3).
  2. Mg(OH)2
  3. Al(OH)3
  4. Omeprazole
  5. Cimetidine (Tegamet)
  6. Ranitidine (Zantac)
  • Histamine:-
  • Histamine is a vasodilator.
  • It stimulates the secretion of pepsin and HCl in Stomach.
  • It contracts the smooth muscles in the bronchi and gut and relaxes other muscles such as those in the walls of fine blood vessels.
  • Histamine is also responsible for the nasal congestion associated with the common cold and allergic response to pollen.                    

2. Anti-histamine:-

  • Chemicals which diminish or abolish the effects of histamine released in body and hence prevent allergic reactions.

               EXAMPLES:-

chemistry in everyday life

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Brompheniramine (Dimetapp, Dimetane)
  2. Terfenadine (Seldane)
  3. Chlorpheniramine (Zeet)
  4. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
  5. Pheniramine maleate (Avil)

3. Neurologically active drugs:-

  • Drugs which have a neurological effect.

 

    A. Tranquilizers:

  • Chemical substances used for treatment of stress and mild or severe mental diseases. These relieve anxiety, stress, irritability, or excitement by inducing a sense of well-being.

                             EXAMPLES:-

chemistry in everyday life

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Anti-depressants:- Phenelzine(Nardil), Iproniazid
  2. Hypnotics (barbiturates):- Veronal, Amytal, Nembutal, Luminal, Seconal
  3. Non-Hypnotics:- Equanil, Meprobamate, Chlorodizepoxide

 

   B. Analgesics:

  • Chemical used to relieve pain without causing any disturbances in the nervous system.

 

EXAMPLES:-

  1. Narcotic (Addictive):- Morphine, Heroine, Codeine
  2. Non-Narcotic (Non-Addictive):- Aspirin, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac sodium

NOTE:- Aspirin inhibits the synthesis of chemicals known as prostaglandins which stimulate inflammation in the tissue and cause pain.

 

4. Antimicrobials:-

  • Drugs that tends to destroy/Prevent development or inhibit the pathogenic action of microbes such a bacteria(antibacterial drugs), fungi(antifungal agents), virus(antiviral agents), or other parasites (antiparasitic drugs) selectively.

 

       A. Antibiotics:

  • The chemicals produced by microorganism like bacteria, fungi, moulds that inhibits the growth or destroy other microorganism causing infectious diseases in men or animal’s body called antibiotics.

 

Bactericidal Bacteriostatic
Penicillin Erythromycin
Aminoglycosides Tetracycline
Ofloxacin Chloramphenicol
  • W Florey and Alexander Fleming shared Nobel Prize for medicine in 1945 for penicillin.

 

PENICILLIN:-

  • Ampicillin and Amoxycillin are used for the treatment of Pneumonia.
  • Streptomycin is used for the treatment of tuberculosis, meningitis, and Pneumonia

 

TETRACYCLINE:-

  • Teramycin for typhoid
  • Oriomycin for Eyes

 

CHLORAMPHENICOL:-

  • For typhoid, Meningitis , Pneumonia, Acute fever, Dysentary, and certain form of urinary infections.

 

     B. Antiseptic:-

  • Chemical substances that kill or prevent growth of microorganisms and can be applied on living tissue such as cuts, wounds, and diseased skin surface are called antiseptics.

EXAMPLES:-

  1. Furacin
  2. Soframicine
  3. Chloroxylenol
  4. Terpineol
  5. Bithionol
  6. Iodoform
  7. Tincture of iodine
  8. Boric acid(weak antiseptic for eyes)
  9. 2% solution of phenol

 

  • Dettol is a mixture of chloroxylenol and terpineol.
  • Bithionol is added to soaps.

 

    C. Disinfectants:-

  • Chemical substances that kill microorganisms but cannot be applied on living tissues.

       EXAMPLES:-

  1. 1% solution of phenol
  2. 2 to 0.4 ppm Cl2 solution is used to disinfect drinking water, hexachlorophene, methylene blue, etc

 

    D. Antimalarials:-

           EXAMPLES:- Chloroquine

 

 

5. Antifertility drugs:-

  • Chemical substances which are used to control pregnancy in women are called antifertility drugs or birth control pills or oral contraceptives.

EXAMPLES:-

  1. Norethindrone      ( progesterone)
  2. Ethynyl estradiol (novestrol) (progesterone + Estrogen)

 

CHEMICAL IN FOOD

Food additives:-

  • Chemicals which are added to food for their preservation, enhancing their appearance, taste, odour and nutritive value are called food additives.

 

  1. Food Preservations:-
  • Chemicals which are added to food materials to prevent their spoilage due to microbial growth, yeast, and moulds.

EXAMPLES:-

  1. Sodium benzoate – Used for preservation of fruit juice, jam, jelly, etc.
  2. Parabens(Alkyl-p-hydroxy benzoate) – Used for preservation of tomato sauce, soft drinks, etc.
  3. Sorbates(salt of sorbic acid) – Used for preservation of milk cheese, meat, fish, etc.
  4. Propionates(ethyl/phenyl propionate) – Used for preservation of biscuits, baked products, etc.
  5. Epoxides – Used for preservation of nuts, dried fruits, etc.

 

  1. Artificial sweetening Agents:-
  • Chemical compounds which gives sweetening effect to the food and enhance it’s flavor.
  • These are highly valuable for diabetic persons and people who need to control intake calories.
  • Use in pan masala, ice-creams, drinks, mouthwash, toothpastes, toffies etc.

EXAMPLES:-

  1. Aspartame (sweeting value=100)
  2. Saccharin (sweeting value=550)
  3. Sucralose (sweeting value=600)
  4. Alitame (sweeting value=2000)

 

  1. Antioxidants:-
  • Chemical substances which reduce the rate of oxidation of food materials.

EXAMPLES:-

  1. BHT (butylated hydroxyl toluene)
  2. BHA (butylated hydroxyl anisole)

 

CLEANSING AGENTS:

  1. SOAPS:-
  • Soaps are Na or K salts of long chain fatty acids like Palmitic acid(C15H31COOH), Stearic acid(C17H35COOH), Oleic acid(C17H33COOH) etc.

EXAMPLES:-

  1. Toilet soap
  2. Transparent soap
  3. Shaving soap
  4. Loundary soap etc

 

  1. DETERGENTS:-
  • The synthetic products which like soaps remove dust and grease from a surface are called detergents
  • Detergents are mainly sodium salts of sulphuric acid with long chain hydrocarbons.

 a. Anionic detergents:-

EXAMPLES:- 

i) Sodium lauryl sulphate,

ii) Sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate

b. Cationic detergents:-

EXAMPLES:-

i) Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide

ii) Trimethyl stearyl ammonium bromide

c. Non-Ionic detergents:-

EXAMPLES:-

i) Poly ethyl glycol stearate

ii) Lauryl alcohol Ethoxylate

 

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