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Chemical Coordination and Integration

Chemical Coordination and Integration | NCERT | BIOLOGY CHAPTER 19

You have already learnt that the neural system provides a point-to-point rapid coordination among organs. The neural coordination is fast but short-lived. As the nerve fibres do not innervate all cells of the body and the cellular functions need to be continuously regulated; a special kind of coordination and integration has to be provided. This […]

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Neural Control and Coordination

Neural Control and Coordination | NCERT | BIOLOGY CHAPTER 18

As you know, the functions of the organs/organ systems in our body must be coordinated to maintain homeostasis. Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and complement the functions of one another. For example, when we do physical exercises, the energy demand is increased for maintaining an increased muscular activity. The

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LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT

LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT | NCERT | BIOLOGY CHAPTER 17

Movement is one of the significant features of living beings. Animals and plants exhibit a wide range of movements. Streaming of protoplasm in the unicellular organisms like Amoeba is a simple form of movement. Movement of cilia, flagella and tentacles are shown by many organisms. Human beings can move limbs, jaws, eyelids, tongue, etc. Some

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Excretory Products and their Elimination

Excretory Products and their Elimination | NCERT | BIOLOGY CHAPTER 16

Animals accumulate ammonia, urea, uric acid, carbon dioxide, water and ions like Na+, K+, Cl–, phosphate, sulphate, etc., either by metabolic activities or by other means like excess ingestion. These substances have to be removed totally or partially. In this chapter, you will learn the mechanisms of elimination of these substances with special emphasis on

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BODY FLUIDS AND CIRCULATION

BODY FLUIDS AND CIRCULATION | NCERT | BIOLOGY CHAPTER 15

You have learnt that all living cells have to be provided with nutrients, O2 and other essential substances. Also, the waste or harmful substances produced, have to be removed continuously for healthy functioning of tissues. It is therefore, essential to have efficient mechanisms for the movement of these substances to the cells and from the

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Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Breathing and Exchange of Gases | NCERT | BIOLOGY CHAPTER 14

As you have read earlier, oxygen (O2) is utilised by the organisms to indirectly break down simple molecules like glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, etc., to derive energy to perform various activities. Carbon dioxide (CO2) which is harmful is also released during the above catabolic reactions. It is, therefore, evident that O2 has to be

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